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Titanic Remembrance Day

Posted By: Best Brains Apr-19, 2017 Study Tips - BBActivities Best BrainsGeneral Knowledge - BBSocial Awareness - Best BrainsEnvironment
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Titanic Remembrance Day

Titanic Remembrance Day is celebrated on April 15th of each year.

RMS Titanic was a British passenger liner which sank in the North Atlantic Ocean on April 15, 1912, after clashing with an iceberg during her maiden cruise from Southampton, UK to New York City, US. The sink of Titanic has caused the death of 1,502 people in one of the deadliest peacetime marine disasters inmodern history. While the RMS Titanic was the largest ship buoyant at the time of her maiden voyage, she was the second among the three other Olympic class ocean liners operated by the White Star Line. RMS was built by the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast with Thomas Andrews, who perished with the ship, as her naval architect. On her maiden voyage, she carried around 2,224 passengers and crew.

Under the authority of Edward Smith, her passengers included many of the wealthiest people in the world, and there were hundreds of imigrants from Great Britain, Ireland, Scandinavia and elsewhere throughout Europe looking for a new life in North America. The Titanic was designed to be the last word in comfort and lavishness, with an on-board swimming pool, libraries, gymnasium, lavish restaurants and magnificent cabins. She also had a prevailing wireless telegraph provided for the convenience of passengers as well as for operational use. Though the Titanic had all advanced safety features like watertight compartments and remotely activated watertight doors, but because of the outdated naval safety system, she carried very few lifeboats, which were sufficient for only 1,178 people—a little more than half of the number traveling on the marine voyage, and one-third her total travelers and crew capacity.

Titanic Remembrance Day

After leaving Southampton on April 10, 1912, Titanic called at Cherbourg in France and Queenstown which is now Cobh, in Ireland before heading towards westwards New York. On April 14, 1912; four days into the journey and about 375 miles (600 km) south of Newfoundland, she hit an iceberg at 11:40 pm ship’s time. The glancing crash caused Titanic’s hull plates to clasp inwards along her starboard side and opened five of her sixteen watertight compartments to the sea; the ship slowly filled with water. In the meantime, passengers and some of the crew members were taken in lifeboats, many of which were launched only partially loaded. A disproportionate number of men were left on board because of the protocol followed by the officers to save  “women and children first” by loading the lifeboats. By 2:20 AM, Titanic broke apart and foundered, with well over one thousand of people still left on the board. Just in two hours after the Titanic foundered, the Cunard liner RMS Carpathia arrived on the scene of the sinking, where she brought aboard an estimated 705 survivors.

This disaster was greeted with worldwide shock and outrage at an enormous loss of life and the regulatory and technical failures that had led to it. Public inquiries in Britain and the United States led to major improvement in marine safety. One of their most important legacies was the establishment in 1914 of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), which still governs naval safety today. In addition, several new wireless regulations were approved around the world in an attempt to learn from the many missteps in wireless communications which could have saved many more travelers. Many of the survivors lost all of their money and belongings and were left penniless; many families, particularly those of crew members from Southampton, lost their primary bread-earners. They were helped by an expression of public sympathy and generous donations. Some of the male survivors were accused of fearfulness for leaving the ship while people were still on board; the White Star Line’s chairman, J. Bruce Ismay, faced social exclusion for the rest of his life.

The destroyed remains of the Titanic are still out on the marine, split in two and steadily decayed at a depth of 12,415 feet (3,784 m). Since its discovery in 1985, thousands of artifacts have been recovered and put on display at museums around the world. The Titanic has become one of the most famous ships in recent history, her memory kept alive by numerous books, folk songs, exhibits, filmsand memorials.

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The ET. like Bug that Inhabited Earth 100 Million Years Ago

Posted By: Best Brains Apr-14, 2017 Study Tips - BBActivities Best BrainsGeneral Knowledge - BBSocial Awareness - Best BrainsReading SkillsEnvironment
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The ET. like Bug that Inhabited Earth 100 Million Years Ago

The researchers have discovered a 100-million-year-old bug species with a triangular head and 'ET-like' appearance preserved in amber in Myanmar.

While there are about million described species of insects known to humanity, millions more are still to be discovered and thus far have managed to carefully fit into one of the 31 existing scientific orders. However, when George Poinar  Jr, who is well known as the world’s leading expert on animal and plant life forms, found an insect that lived 100 million years ago preserved in amber and has been given its own "scientific order" while he finds it as an incredibly rare event.

According to the emeritus professor of entomology at Oregon State University’s College of Sciences, this unusual insect is a small and wingless and had many features that did not match with of any other insect species he had encountered before. The most prominent features were its triangular head and strange bulging eyes that gave the female bug an “E.T.-like” look. To be clear, the triangular heads are not strange in these insects,  but the vertex or the highest point of the triangle of the right triangle located at the base of the neck was unusual like other insects. The team at Oregon State University (OSU), who discovered this creature, believed that it would have given these species the ability to see almost 180 degrees by simply turning its head sideways.

The neck glands appear to release some sort of substance which was most likely used to repel predators.  George and his team, who published the findings in a journal Cretaceous Research in December 2016, considers that this wingless insect was an omnivore that resided in tree bark fissures and fed on worms, mites, and fungi. It has a long, narrow, flat body and slender legs, which indicate that it could move fast.

The bug, categorized in a newly created order Aethiocarenodea, was named Aethiocarenusburmanicus in honor of the Hukawng Valley mines of Myanmar; which is previously known as Burma. This is where the amber was discovered, and the researchers are not sure how the arthropods became extinct, as they wonder it was most likely due to the loss of their favored habitat. Given that scientists have been able to find just one other amber preserved with a specimen of this alien-like bug, they anticipate the scientific order to be a very elite club with just two members. In comparison to the largest order insects Coleoptera, which is made up of thousands of known beetles species. This creature is long extinct, but it is predicted that it roamed the forests of Burma around 100 million years ago.

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Clever Ants Use Sponges and Paper to Transport Honey

Posted By: Best Brains Apr-11, 2017 Study Tips - BBActivities Best BrainsGeneral Knowledge - BBSocial Awareness - Best BrainsReading SkillsEnvironment
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Clever Ants Use Sponges and Paper to Transport Honey

The phrase “good things come in small packages” doesn't go wrong when we think of ants. These tiny creatures strive to survive floods by transforming the food into rafts. They find their way home using an internalized GPS system they have and can even liftup to 20 times their body weight. It is proved by scientists that the insects, whose brains are smaller than a quarter of a small pin’s head, will possiblyeven use tools, a skill that was once thought to be the sphere of “clever” species like humans and a set of other animals. The researchers from the University of Szeged in Hungary have exposed that when given a choice, these clever insects even have the brilliance to select the most efficient tool for doing their job.

The team, led by Istvan Maák, have conducted experiments on two species of funnel ants— A. subterranean and B.senilis. This is to test their tools selectivity, both the insects were presented with various liquids containing both pure and diluted honey, along with a variety of instruments to help the ants to transport the honey to their nests. The insects would find these tools in the wild, such as brushwood, pine needles and soil grains. The team also added some artificial ones, like sponge and paper. You can see them in the below image.

This activity was a serious observation for the team, who tried to grab the ants behavior in transforming the food to their homes.

While the members of the subterranean quickly settled on using tiny soil grains for the diluted honey and sponge to soak the pure honey. They even learned on how to rip the sponge into smaller, more manageable pieces.

Clever Ants Use Sponges and Paper to Transport Honey

The members of senilis, carefully tested each option before they switched solely to paper and sponge, this indicates that they were learning and analyzing the properties of the different tools at their dumping.

However, the researchers who published these findings in a journal of Animal Behavior, in January, believe that the weight may have played a major factor in their choice. The ants eventually chose their tools based on how easily they can carry out and how well they engrossed the honey. The ants also treated the diluted honey and pure honey differently.By screening the two choices, they were aware of how both the liquids interacted with the various tools.

Clever Ants Use Sponges and Paper to Transport Honey

The above table helps you understand the soaking properties of the different tools used by Subterranean.

The above table helps you understand the soaking properties of the different tools used by senilis.

While the ants, in the past, have the largest brains of any insect, have been observed using mud or sand grains as tools to transport the liquid. Though inspiring, these are commonly found in their natural surroundings. What surprised the scientists is the ability of them to select from foreign objects like paper and sponge, which is a complex cognitive task.

The team believes that the funnel ants evolved this cognitive meting out because unlike other members of their species, they can’t even expand their stomachs to hold more food. Hence the reason why theyfound an alternate way to transport food, which again, is a critical task for them to survive.

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National Submarine Day

Posted By: Best Brains Apr-11, 2017 Study Tips - BBActivities Best BrainsGeneral Knowledge - BBSocial Awareness - Best BrainsEnvironment
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National Submarine Day

What comes into your mind when someone speaks about submarines?. Yes, you may think of subs or sandwiches or start singing..."We all live in a yellow submarine, yellow submarine, yellow submarine."

But, how many of you out there know that April 11th is a National Submarine Day? If you all know, then it's good to remember that living on a US Naval Submarine is an unsafe place to be.

History

Believe it or not, the first recorded submersible (a small submersible boat or other craft) was designed and built by Cornelius Drebbel in the year 1620 for James I of England, why anybody would want to force themselves beneath the surface of a 17th century Thames is beyond us.

On April 11, 1900, the first commissioned submarine, the USS Holland, was acquired by the United States Government. While; The Holland was not the first submarine, named for her Irish-American inventor, John Philip Holland. However, the honor goes to the 1862 Alligator. Which was the first submarine ordered and built by the Navy, though it was never commissioned. The boat was originally laid down as Holland VI, and launched on May 17, 1897.

Holland VI eventually proved her strength and worthiness as a warship and was eventually purchased by the U.S. government for the sum of $150,000 on April 11, 1900. It was considered to be the first truly successful craft of her type. It was decommissioned on July 17, 1905.

A submarine is a watercraft competent of independent operation undersea. It differs from a submersible, which has a more restricted underwater ability. The term submarine most commonly refers to a large crewed independent vessel. However; if we see historically or colloquially, a submarine can also refer to medium-sized or smaller vessels, which is remotely operated vehicles or robots.

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Finally!! Smart Prescription Glasses that Adjust to Your Vision Automatically

Posted By: Best Brains Apr-10, 2017 Study Tips - BBActivities Best BrainsGeneral Knowledge - BBSocial Awareness - Best BrainsReading SkillsEnvironment
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Finally!! Smart Prescription Glasses that Adjust to Your Vision Automatically

As we grow old, the crystalline lenses in our eyes begin to harden. In result, the objects that are in close range will start to slowly appear blurry, and this is forcing many middle-aged adults and others who have this issue to either glasses around their necks or have themtucked away in their bags. Those who are already suffering from short-sightedness, or myopia, which is a condition where distant objects appear blurred, are the people who will have to depend on spectacles, or even in worst case they switch between two pairs of eyeglasses. However, we have to thank the researchers of Utah, as they are the ones who "finally found a solution which will self-adjust your glasses".

If we go to the details; the team of makers led by computer and electrical engineering professor Carlos Mastrangelo and the doctoral student NazmulHasan, took an exclusive move towards the discovery and making of eyeglass lenses. Instead of going with glass or plastic, they tried to impersonate the eye lens with glycerin, which is a thick colorless liquid, fixed within the two flexible rubber-like membranes. Following it; they then connected the three mechanical actuators to the rear membrane to help it move back and onwards. These changes helped them to change the curvature of the liquid lens; shifting the focal length, or distance betweenconnecting the lens and the eye. While these lenses are housed inside a unique eyeglass border or(frame) containing electronics, they have a rechargeable battery to control and power the actuators.

However, when a wearer looks at an object, a meter is embedded in the frame’s overpass and it instantly measures the coldness from the eye and transmits the information to the actuators that curve the lenses the appropriate amount. These lenses also change focus from one object to another in less than 14 milliseconds, which means that the wearer can see everything around you without taking off the glasses. Alike to all smart devices, the batteries that operate the actuators need to be charged; they can last up to 24 hours.

What do you need to know before you wear them?

The user who prefers or opts to wear these glasses needs to add his/her eyeglass prescription using a special smart phone app, while the information that is conveyed via a Bluetooth connection will automatically calibrate the lenses. However, if in a rare case you have any change in your prescription, then it can also be easily updated in the same manner, which means that one pair of these eyeglasses could last a lifetime.

However, the researchers, who unveiled the prototype at the Consumer Electronics Show which was held in Las Vegas in January 2017, have realized that these smart glasses are not very marketable in their current burdensome state. Carlos; who has set up Sharpeyes LLC to produce these glasses, expects a lighter and more beautiful version to be available within the upcoming years.

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