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galaxy's-smallest-star

The astronomers recently faltered upon a teeny star called 2MASS J0523-1403, and it was located just 40 light years away. As per them, it is not only the smallest star discovered so far, but it also represents the smallest possible star. By studying the stars; scientists are starting to be able to answer the questions — on where do the stars end and the brown dwarfs begin?

While the stars are the burning balls of gas held together by gravity that is powered by the fusion of hydrogen atoms to helium in their cores. They come in a variety of sizes; the smallest stars, are known as red dwarfs. These can possess as little as t% of the mass of our Sun, whereas the biggest stars or the hyper giants can be over 100 times as massive as the Sun. However, just how small can an object be and still be defined as a star? This has puzzled the astronomers for years. All that was formerly known is that objects below this limit don’t have sufficient mass to burn the fusion of hydrogen in their cores, and these objects are known as brown dwarfs. Brown dwarfs are intangible objects that are supposed to be the missing link between gas giants and low-mass stars such as red dwarfs. They’re usually around the size of Jupiter, but they don’t have enough mass to become a star. Unlike stars, brown dwarfs have no inner energy source.

However, there is another strange difference between brown dwarfs and stars; both of them have opposite relationships between mass and size. Though the more material you add to a star, in the form of hydrogen, the bigger the radius of the star. I.e. they increase their size as mass increases. Whereas, the brown dwarfs, on the other hand, actually shrink in size with increasing mass because of something called electron degeneracy pressure.

How do we find the limit that commands whether an object is a star or a brown dwarf?

To find this difference the astronomers scanned the skies and located objects that were supposed to lie around the stellar or the brown dwarf border. They then intended the light, temperatures, and radius of all of these objects and strategized them. The temperature is dependent on mass but it’s easier to measure; so they found that as temperature decreased, so did radius; this is the expected trend for stellar objects. But, they found that after temperatures of around 2100K there was a break till radius starts to increase with decreasing temperature; and this is the trend that would be expected for brown dwarfs.

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Finally, the scientists can now pinpoint the specific temperature, light, and radius at which the main classification ends. However, the main classification is a relationship between luminosity and temperature and luminosity and radius; which need to be obeyed by stars throughout the majority of their lives. 2MASS J0523-1403 is located around this boundary but towards the stellar side. This star actually has a temperature of 2074K, which is the lowest described temperature so far for a main sequence of the star. It’s also the smallest and the least massive; if it had less mass then it can be a brown dwarf. This star has therefore been identified as a representative of the smallest possible star. However, it is theoretically possible that a star with a slightly smaller mass than 2MASS J0523-1403 could exist, but they still need to discover one.

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world-pasta-day-best-brains-blog

World Pasta Day is celebrated every year on October 25. This day is specially created for the people who love to eat carbs daily. Every age of people loves to have pasta, yeah… but selecting their favorite sauce is up to them.

Pasta is a very versatile food and it comes in many shapes and sizes. It can be served cold or hot, as the main dish, side dish or accompanied with a salad.  Pasta is also a universal food that is served worldwide.

Let it be warm steaming spaghetti in a rich red sauce, black olives, and mushrooms, or a rich Chicken Fettuccine in a creamy garlic white sauce that will just blow your mind to go and grab it. Did you know that there are over 600 shapes of pasta and their names are descriptive of their shapes? Yes, that’s true every shape has a name and makes a lot of difference in look and taste. Spaghetti -‘cord’, vermicelli-like little worms, rotini - spirals, fusili like of spindles, tortellini -little cakes, linguini as in - little tongues, conchiglie shaped as shells, fettucine turned to be small ribbons, penne - quills and capellini as fine hairs. These are the savory little goodies which are essential to any pantry.

However, the Italian food made it famous, and it was only a gateway drug of pasta. While the Chinese Chow Mein and German Spaetzle are just a couple of other ways the world has taken pasta and fallen in love with this delicious dish.

History

The World Pasta Day came into existence as part of the World Pasta Congress on the 25th of October in the year 1995. Experts from all over the world came together to discuss the glories of the noodle, with specific emphasis on the importance of spreading knowledge of the world’s prospect of pasta. While this organization uses World Pasta Day to promote the eating of pasta, along with its cultural and cookery significance.

Everything from making the consumers try the new pasta and providing important information to institutions and people has increasingly raised its popularity and made it one of the popular foods in today’s global cuisine. Every country is encouraged to celebrate the day in their own way, and sharing the logo of the official organization.

How to celebrate the day

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One of the best ways to celebrate this day is to prepare your favorite dish with your favorite topping and sauce and enjoy it with your family or peers. The delicious flavors and textures that come along with this noodle favorite will definitely make your day yummy. Or you all can go out, and host a World Pasta day party, where everyone comes together to share their favorite dish. You can also collect the best recipes from the net and try to prepare it on your own and surprise your family. But, just don’t forget to make it rich, creamy, and overloaded with some great toppings.

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national-nuts-day

Oct 22, 2017, is not just a regular Sunday, but it’s a nutritious Sunday. This Sunday is observed as “National Nut Day” every year. We know that nuts have been a primary source of nutritious food from primitive man to modern man. Nuts can be consumed in various forms, they can be cooked, roasted, eaten raw or sprouted, and can be used as ingredients in the breakfast cereal. Nuts contain mostly unsaturated and mono saturated fats which are good for your health.

Nuts not only give you good health but also add nutritious values as are rich sources of protein, and they contain vitamins like B2 and E, high valued minerals like phosphorus, selenium, magnesium, copper, and potassium. Nuts are very important to everyone, especially during snowfall season. They store nuts during autumn and use them during peak winter and spring which keeps them away from starving.

While there are many studies indicated that a person who consumes nuts on a daily basis will less likely to suffer from coronary heart disease. This was first discovered in 1993 and researchers encourage people to include nuts in their daily diet. Further studies said that consumption of nuts like walnut, almonds can reduce cholesterol concentration.

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One study reported that people who consumed nuts with their regular diet lived to live two to three years longer than the people who did not consume nuts regularly. So it is advised to replace junk food with nuts so for longer life.

Eat these nuts regularly:

Almonds: There are lots of nutritious benefit in almonds, almonds can improve healthy cholesterol and reduce bad cholesterol which is dangerous to your heart. Almonds can be included in your weight loss diet program and it may lower blood pressure in people who are suffering from obesity.

Pistachios: These are high fiber nuts. Consuming two to three ounces of pistachios can decrease bad cholesterol and increase good cholesterol. Pistachios keep your heart healthy and control the blood sugar levels after a meal.

Walnuts: Omega-3 fatty acids are good for your health and walnuts are excellent sources of Omega-3 fatty acids and alpha-linolenic acid. Walnuts are good for the healthy heart, and control blood pressure and increase good cholesterol in your body.

Peanuts: Though peanuts belong to legume family they are often considered as nuts. They have a lot of nutritious values and health benefits. The study found that peanuts can reduce the death rates. They may reduce the occurrence of heart deceases, and they are very good notorious food for the people who are suffering from type 2 diabetes.

Hazelnuts:  Like all nuts, Hazelnuts are for heart and blood pressure, and improve blood vessel functionality reduces bad cholesterol, produces vitamin E in the body.

So don’t ignore to add these highly nutritious nuts in your daily diet. You can include nuts in your breakfast, and you can replace your bag of chips with nuts during your snack time.

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forgetting-things-may-make-you-smarter

The recent research suggests that the attacks of forgetfulness could cause a safety mechanism in the brain designed to make sure we're not loaded with information. In other words, the specialists say that it's a healthy part of the brain's operation. In their words, they say that it might come as a relief if we are always forgetting where we left our belongings like house keys and some other stuff, but this could also possibly teach us more about how our brain operates.

According to two well-known researchers from the University of Toronto in Canada, the memory isn't envisioned to help communicate the most accurate information, but it would be rather the most useful information that can help us make smart decisions in the future. However, it is always very important that the brain forgets immaterial details and instead focuses on the stuff that's going to help us to make decisions in the real world.

While some researchers took this in a different approach and to the idea of memory and looked at the neurobiology of remembering, or perseverance, while others looked at the neurobiology of forgetting, or transience.

However, researchers found evidence of the thoughtful weakening of the synaptic connections between neurons that help to encrypt memories, as well as the signs in which the new neurons overwriting existing memories exit, to make them harder to access. So why is the brain spending time trying to make us forget?

Primarily, forgetting helps us adjust to new circumstances by letting go of our old memories we don't need. So, in this way if your favorite coffee shop has moved to the other side of the town, and you find a new one closer to you, your brain will let you forget the old location and thus, help you remember the new one.

In another way, forgetting allows us to generalize our past events and help us to make decisions about new ones. There is a concept known in artificial intelligence as regularization. Which means when you just tend to remember the main gist of your previous visits to that coffee shop; rather than every little detail, it will then be less work for your brain to figure out how to behave the next time you go in there.

Now – when you try to navigate the world your brain will constantly bring up the multiple conflicting memories, such things make it harder for you to make knowledgeable decisions.

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In this way, the researchers also think the amount of forgetting we do could be contingent on the environment, and with a faster pace of change would definitely require a faster pace of forgetting too.

In one of the recent experiments, it was proved that forgetting information we need to remember too often is a frustrating practice and this can be a sign of more serious problems. But new research suggests that at a certain level of forgetfulness is actually a built-in mechanism which is designed to make us smarter.

The point of memory is to make you a smart person; who can make wise decisions given the circumstances, and the important aspect in helping you do that is being able to forget some information which is not important to remember.

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national-fossil-day

National Fossil Day is created to bring scientific and educational awareness to people and is celebrated on the second Wednesday of October.

National Fossil Day is celebrated nationwide and was first held on October 13th, 2010, during Earth Science Week. Within this week National Park Service and over 270 partners, including scientific institutions, organizations, museums and other groups hosted events across the United States allowing the public prospects to learn more about the world’s fossil heritage. Many parks, universities and non-profit organizations also take part in the events.

A new National Fossil Day logo is created each year depicting a prehistoric organism. This logo helps to promote National Fossil Day and provide educational institutions an opportunity to share more information about fossils.   The original National Fossil Day logo was created in the year 2010 and presented a fossil mammal known as the Titan. But, in the year 2011, a marine reptile known as the mosasaur was used as the National Fossil Day logo. In the mammoth was featured in the annual logo. A Paleozoic invertebrate known as the eurypterid was highlighted in the annual logo for the year 2013.

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In 2015 the National Fossil Day's artwork features a prehistoric mammal known as a Chalicothere, portrayed in a Miocene prairie grassland. For the National Fossil Day's artwork in the year 2016 it featured a saber-toothed cat, long-horned bison, and a condor, all Pleistocene (ice age) animals, logos in the year 2016.

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How to celebrate this Day

Visit any local museum or gather your friends to do some research about fossils.

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In a perfect world – or impeccably, a wonderfully strange world, plants and animals would speak the same language. Could you imagine this? Yet, it would certainly make being on top of the food chain sensitively challenging, it sure would be informative to know.

Most humans don’t give much credibility to the communication abilities of other kingdoms. Just because they don’t speak a language we understand, it doesn’t mean that plants are not getting messages to one another.

Plants carry some uniqueness as per their family structure and factors. You might not know of plants being particularly chatty, but in reality - they communicate remarkably well with each other. This is especially seen when faced with potential danger. However, there is a recent study about the growing body of research on how plants can communicate with each other. This study about plant science says that injured plants send some emergency signals to alert the neighbors to start helping build up their defenses.

The chain of events related to this study and discovery began about two years ago, when University of Delaware botanist, Harsh Bais, agreed to mentor sixteen-year-old Connor Sweeney on a research project. The ecstatic high school student got to work right away, after spending all his free time, including weekends and summer breaks, in the Harsh Bais lab at the Delaware Biotechnology Institute.

The project entailed culturing Arabidopsis thaliana, also known as mustard weed, that was used in experiments. Here the young researcher placed the seeds in Petri dishes and test tubes filled with agar to promote growth. You can see that the seeds would germinate about six days later and transform into delicate three-inch plantlets with bright green leaves.

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To observe the plantlets transformation, Sweeney conducted several experiments in order to test the plant communication. He sliced a mustard weed leaf in two spots mimicking an insect bite to see how it would begin the repair process. While the following day, the young researcher was surprised to discover that while the injured plant remained unchanged, the roots of the neighboring young mustard weed seedling had grown significantly longer and even had lateral offshoots. You can see it in the below image.

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The researchers were unable to believe what they saw as they have expected that the injured plant to put more resources into growing roots. But they didn’t see that according to the researcher Bais, who conducted a similar study in the year 2012. He found that soil bacteria living near the roots of a plant helped to boost its immunity by signaling the leaf pores, or stomata, to close in the company of pathogens. To safeguard that it was not the same system at work, Sweeney partitioned the plants to prevent the communication between their root bacteria and then repeated the experiment multiple times. But the results were the same all the time.

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To see what was prompting the root growth, the scientists conducted more tests and learned that the injured plants were discharging volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to notify its neighbors of the approaching danger. Trusting that the strong plant was growing its roots to absorb more nutrients to strengthen its defenses, Bais and Sweeney began observing for combinations that help trigger the increase in size. For their surprise, each time an injured plant sent out a warning, its neighboring mustard weeds began expressing more Auxin, a key plant growth hormone. However, the researchers were not sure what the volatile organic compounds comprise, or the span of time they persist in the atmosphere. The study still continues to see the exact reasons.

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spinach-leaf-transformation

Using a plant for either cleaning or repairing purposes is quite common these days. Scientists have created a little version of a working heart, which may assist in tissue regeneration one day.

Scientists found a new way to use spinach to build a working human heart muscle, which will potentially solve a long-standing problem in efforts to repair damaged organs. The details of the study are published in the journal Biomaterials, explaining the new way to grow a vascular system, which has been a roadblock for tissue engineering.

Scientists have already created large-scale human tissue in a lab using 3D method printing, but it was proved to be much harder to grow the small, delicate blood vessels that are vital to the tissue's health.

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As per the co-author Joshua Gershlak, the main limiting factor for tissue engineering - is the lack of a vascular network. This is proved that without that vascular network, you get a lot of tissue death.

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Above is the image of a decellularized spinach leaf; before dye is added to test its ability to filter blood through the tissue.

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In the second image, you can see the picture of a spinach leaf after it successfully revealed red dye could be pumped through its veins, simulating the blood, oxygen and nutrients that a human heart tissue needs to grow.

However, one of the crucial traits of a leaf is the branching network of thin veins that delivers water and nutrients to its cells. At present, scientists have used plant veins to redo the way blood moves through human tissue. This work involves transforming a spinach leaf in the lab to eliminate its plant cells, which leaves behind a frame made of cellulose.

Cellulose is biocompatible and has been used in a wide variety of reformative medicine applications, such as bone tissue engineering, cartilage tissue engineering, and wound healing.  The team then covered the remaining plant frame in live human cells, so that the human tissue grew on the spinach's support and surrounded the tiny veins. Once they transformed the spinach leaf into a sort of mini heart, then the team sent fluids and microbeads through its veins to illustrate how blood cells can flow through this system.

Though the ultimate goal is to replace damaged tissue in patients who have had heart attacks or who suffered from other cardiac issues that prevent their hearts from contracting. Like blood vessels, the veins in the modified leaves would supply oxygen to the entire swath of replacement tissue, which is crucial in generating new heart matter.

While the study team has confirmed the same methods could be used with different types of plants to heal a variety of tissues in the body. For instance, swapping out the cells in wood might one day help repair human bones.

Researchers say that they have a lot more work to do, but so far this is very promising, and the study co-author Glenn Gaudette, also of WPI, said in a press statement that adapting abundant plants that farmers have been cultivating for thousands of years, are helpful in the use of tissue engineering and could solve a host of problems limiting the field.

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The majestic mountains, beautiful landscapes, and the primeval beaches are the main attractions of the Ireland’s Achill Island. This Island has always been a popular European tourist destination.

However, since mid-April, the rugged 57-square mile island with nearly 2,600 residents has gained worldwide fame thanks to the ‘Magical’ return of the beach which washed away over three decades ago.

While the residents of County Mayo's Achill Island which is known as one of the largest islands off the coast of Ireland were surprised by seeing the stunning transformation that took place overnight. However, the beach was returned to its earlier glory after a freak tide dumped thousands of tons of sand along 1,000 feet of the seashore.

History

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The Dooagh Beach which was once a beautiful destination for many. Did you know that this beach was washed away completely not leaving anything after a huge winter storm hit the area in the year 1984? The damage was unforgettable until recently as it rolled away everything along with the beauty of the place and even many people lost their homes. There was, even more, damage done after two storms rolled in back one after one in 2014, abolishing access points to the beach and washed away a road to a nearby pier.

The citizens and operators of local tourism groups are in a hope that the sandy beach is here to stay.

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No one knows how it happened, but around April this year, something magical happened and an unusual ten-day tide encased the barren 300 meter which is a 984-foot stretch of rock beach with hundreds of tons of soft golden sand! While the scientists from the National University of Ireland, Galway suspect that this sand had been gathering offshore for months and was transported to the beach by the high winds and great waves.

The restored beach is attracting hordes of visitors who are wishing to witness the supremacy of nature, with their own eyes. However, the officials are still not sure if it is safe to swim, as they are not too sure about the sand.  As of now, the visitors are recommended to enjoy the soft sand and leave the swimming to the dolphins that frequent the area.

Citizens near Dooagh hope the beach’s restoration also means the return of sand eels, a popular local fragility, which was unable to continue the inhospitable rocky environment left after by the 1984 storms. Clumps of seaweed called “the wrack” have also landed the shore again, a boon for the area’s farmers who use the briny plants to fertilize their land.

Unexpectedly, this is not the first time Dooagh Beach has disappeared and restored again; it vanished in the 1890s, for over 30 years, before returning in 1927. Yet, the locals are optimistic that this time around, the beautiful sand is here to stay!!

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slinky-dog-coaster

Disney Unveils “Slinky Dog Dash Roller Coaster” — to Celebrate National Slinky Day

Disney — I can imagine what comes to everyone’s mind when we hear someone say, Disney. Toys… more fantasy…. the beautiful world for all ages… While most of the toys or our imagination will fade out sometimes, as new things start pop up so often.

Here comes the Slinky, the pre flattened coil of wire or plastic; which can walk on its own and has entertained children and adults for over 70 years. Therefore, it is not surprising to hear that every month on August 30th, people across the United States celebrate this iconic toy with a National Slinky Day.

However, this year the people at Disney have made this event more special by introducing the new Slinky Dog Dash roller coaster at the Hollywood Studios theme park at Florida’s Walt Disney World Resort. While the family ride has been added with two new attractions and themed by Andy Davis, it was inspired by one of the main characters Slinky from the Toy Story movies, he created it in his backyard using his Mega Coaster Play Kit. This is all set to open in Summer 2018. Main attraction draws creativeness from the film’s dachshund, who has a metal Slinky for a body. Though, it is designed to take full advantage of the coils, assuring riders a thrilling journey, which completes with sharp drops and sudden turns. The Slinky Dog Dash will be one of two new rides to excite the park visitors that are looking forward to the newly expanded Toy Story Land. If you do not know anything about the second attraction, it is inspired by the Alien Swirling Saucers, this attraction is themed to a Pizza Planet toy play set with Aliens circling around in their flying saucers with rocket ships.

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Like many great creations, the Slinky was invented accidentally. In 1943, Richard James, a naval mechanical engineer who was trying to create a spring that would keep gentle ship equipment stable at sea. One day, he unsuspectingly dropped some samples off of a shelf and watched them in astonishment that they landed gracefully, with a “spring” in their own steps, instead of crashing directly on the ground.

Trusting the spring’s action, he thought it would make a great toy, then he and his wife Betty came up with the name and borrowed $500 USD to manufacture the first Slinkys. While this took some time and in the year 1945, the inventors were allowed to demonstrate the toy at Gimbels department store in Philadelphia. To their glee, the entire inventory of 400 was sold within 90 minutes, and the rest, as we see is a History until today… An estimated 250 million units of the classic toy, which was inaugurated into the “National Toy Hall of Fame” in 2000, then been so, and the numbers continue to rise. While Richard made the Slinky by winding 80-feet of wire into a 2-inch spiral, and the toy now comes in many different sizes, color and colors. Some even make sounds while others light up, and one lucky Slinky even gets to go on escapades with his Toy Story friends...

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